Without a model number and brand, I will not be able to give you specific information regarding the water level in your washer. I will give you general information that will apply to most front load washers.
Front load washers use about 4 to 5 gallons of water verses the 17 gallons used in most top load washers. The fill level in most front loaders is only about 4" to 5" deep looking at the very back portion of the tub. Most of these tubs tilt backwards, the water depth at the front will normally be lower. If your washer is not filling close to this level, you may have a problem. Each model of front load washer is different. To determine the proper level for your exact model, I would need to know the specific model number.
If your washer is filling properly, you may have a different problem. Here are some tips regarding common problems with front load washers:
Check the drain line for proper installation. The stand pipe height should be at least 30" for most washers. This will prevent fill water from siphoning out during the cycle.
Also, make sure that the drain hose is not stuck way down the standpipe. This can also cause siphoning. It should only be inserted about 6" to 8". Also, the standpipe opening cannot be sealed off where it is air tight. It must have air flow around the outside of the drain pipe.
Water temperatures below 65 degrees will not properly dissolve detergent (liquid or powder). Higher water temperatures work better in front load washers.
Using too much detergent will result in residue on clothes at the end of the cycle. Also, your clothes will not clean properly when using too much soap. It may cause graying of the fabric in many garments. You may try cutting back on the amount of HE detergent.
NOTE: Overuse of detergent is one of the most common causes of the symptoms you are describing.
Undiluted fabric softener can also cause residue on clothes. If you are using fabric softener, try using a smaller amount and diluting it with warm water up to the normal fill line in the softener dispenser.
Do not overload the washer. This will cause detergent residue to become trapped in clothes. The washer can be loosely loaded with garments. Do not pack the drum tightly.
Hopefully, some of these tips will address your problems and concerns with your washer. If your water level is significantly below the depth described above, you may need a service technician to diagnose and fix your problem.