A size 10 or 10w are both 10 1/4" long. A size 11 is 10 5/8" long. So the size 11 is 3/8" longer.
Wide width shoes are variations of normal sized shoes where the overall length is the same, but the toe box and forefoot width is increased to accommodate wider feet. People with wide feet usually have a similar heel width, but have a wider forefoot and wider toes. Wide width shoes may also have greater depth because wide feet are usually taller too.