Your problem has nothing to do with Freon. If Freon was leaking out of the sealed cooling system of your refrigerator, your unit would not be cooling (or freezing).
Here are some tips that may help you resolve this problem:
Ice will absorb taste and odors from foods in the refrigerator and freezer. I recommend discarding all of the old ice in your ice bucket. You will need to continue to periodically do this to keep the ice fresh.
Your ice mold may have deposits built up from the previously unfiltered water supply. I recommend removing the ice maker module and thoroughly cleaning the ice mold. White vinegar will normally remove hard water deposits from the ice mold. If you are unsure how to remove the ice maker module, resubmit your question with the full model number of your refrigerator and I can provide specific advice on this procedure.
Even though you are now filtering the water, you may still have a bad taste coming from the water supply to the refrigerator. A build-up of deposits in the water supply line could cause this problem. I recommend turning off the water supply cut-off valve to the refrigerator, disconnecting the line and taking a sample of the water supplied to the back of the refrigerator. See if this sample tastes or smells bad. If so, you will need a plumber to resolve this type of problem.
If your freezer has an automatic defrost system problem, you could be getting excessive frost on the ice and frozen foods that is affecting the taste and smell. Check for excessive frost on the back wall of the freezer. This may indicate a defrost system problem. A service technician would normally be needed to diagnose and repair this type of problem.
There is a possibility that the white particles in your water supply are caused by cysts. If you are on a chlorinated water supply from the city, you may be able to eliminate this problem by removing or bypassing the water filter for several days. The chlorine would kill these cysts.
If the above tips do not help you resolve this problem, resubmit your question with additional details and the full model number of your refrigerator for more help.